June 19, 2024 In Uncategorized

Key Issues for Probate and Wills in Israel

Planning for the distribution of one’s estate is a critical task that requires careful consideration of legal frameworks. In Israel, the probate and wills process is influenced by a blend of national legislation and religious laws, leading to a number of unique challenges. Here, we delve into five key issues surrounding probate and wills in Israel.

1. Dual Legal Systems: Civil and Religious Laws

Israel operates under a dual legal system that incorporates both civil and religious laws. While civil laws provide the primary framework for inheritance and probate issues, religious laws play a significant role, particularly in matters concerning family law. Each religious community—Jewish, Muslim, Christian, and Druze—has its own set of rules that can affect inheritance. For instance, under Jewish religious law (Halacha), certain heirs like the firstborn son might receive a double portion of the estate. Navigating the complexities of these dual legal systems requires careful planning and, often, the input of legal experts who are well-versed in both civil and religious statutes.

2. Formal Requirements for Wills

Israeli law stipulates stringent requirements for a will to be acknowledged as valid. The Inheritance Law, 1965, outlines four main types of wills: handwritten (holographic), witnessed, oral (for those on their deathbed), and before authority (such as a judge). Each type has specific formal requirements. For instance, a witnessed will must be signed by the testator in the presence of at least two witnesses, who must also sign the document. Failure to meet these formalities can result in the will being contested and possibly declared invalid, thereby subjecting the estate to the rules of intestate succession.

3. Intestate Succession

In instances where a person dies without a valid will, their estate is distributed according to Israel’s laws of intestate succession. The law generally prioritizes the spouse, children, and other close relatives. However, this can sometimes lead to unexpected results, especially in cases of blended families or second marriages. For example, a surviving spouse is entitled to half of the deceased’s estate and the children share the remaining half. The distribution can be even more complicated if there are no direct descendants, leading to inheritance claims from more distant relatives or even the state.

4. Probate Process

The probate process in Israel involves obtaining a probate order or, if there is no will, an inheritance order. These orders are issued by the Registrar of Inheritance Affairs or the family court and serve as legal confirmation of the beneficiaries’ right to the deceased’s assets. The process can be time-consuming and involves multiple steps, including submitting the will, providing death certificates, and notifying potential heirs. Disputes among heirs can further complicate and prolong the probate process, emphasizing the need for clear, precise estate planning.

5. Cross-Border Issues

With Israel being home to a significant number of immigrants, cross-border inheritance issues are common. Assets located abroad or heirs residing in different countries can complicate the probate process. Israeli law generally respects foreign wills if they meet specific criteria. However, issues such as double taxation and conflicting legal requirements between jurisdictions can arise. Therefore, individuals with international ties or assets should seek comprehensive legal advice to ensure that their estate plans are effective across borders.


Navigating the probate and wills landscape in Israel requires careful consideration of both civil and religious legal frameworks, strict adherence to formal requirements, and attention to potential complications like intestate succession and cross-border issues. Proper estate planning, ideally with the guidance of experienced legal professionals, is crucial to ensure that one’s wishes are honored and that the heirs avoid unnecessary legal challenges.

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